Friday, May 22, 2020

Hobbes Theory of the Nature of Humans - 2245 Words

Socrates and Machiavelli both aspire to the same end of accomplishing certain political goals. Machiavelli, in the Prince, speaks of his desire to end political conflict through the institution of order while Socrates, as described by Plato, seemingly wishes for the government of his time to be replaced with a more just system. Though the two historical figures are both very relevant to the concepts of power and how to attain it, they are polar opposites when it comes to the means by which they hope to accomplish their personal ends. In The Prince, Machiavelli gives an essential guide of how a Prince must appear and how he must interact with his subject in order to make sure that they are complacent and subordinate. On the other hand,†¦show more content†¦On the other hand, the perfect prince is more observant and more aware than the gadfly, which would play to his benefit. That said, a perfect prince ought not avoid a mediocre gadfly (imagine that!) because he (the pri nce) is wiser are more clever. On the other hand, an imperfect prince does not have the tools nor intelligence to evade a gadfly, and will thus necessarily be revealed. On the other a prince may be able to mitigate the impact of a gadfly. To start, people give much more credence to a prince than they give to any old man wandering the street badgering people with questions. Secondly, the prince could mitigate the gadfly problem by denying the gadfly access. If the gadfly does not have access to the prince, there is no way for the revelations to be made and thus the prince will be able to maintain his power unquestioned. The only way that the gadfly in the real world could have an effect is if he can get access to the prince, find the contradictions (defeat the prince’s master ability of deception), publicize them to the people, and in the end have the credibility to be taken seriously. In conclusion, though both the Machiavellian Prince and the Socratic Gadfly have the intention of accomplishing certain political ends, the means by which they seek the accomplish those ends is completely different.Show MoreRelatedComparing Thomas Hobbes and Augustine Essay878 Words   |  4 Pagesstate of nature is a condition of constant war, which rational and self-motivated people want to end. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Augustine argues that peace is more than the absence of hostilities - it is a state of harmony that makes possible the full functioning of human beings. Full functioning comes from the four internal virtues (courage, justice, temperance, and prudence) that we must exercise to achieve good human morality. Human morality, by and of its self, will not allow us humans to travelRead MoreThomas Hobbes State of Nature in Leviathan Essay847 Words   |  4 Pagesdeemed paramount. Within the State of Nature that is, outside of civil society we have a right to all things ‘even to one another’s body’, and there would be no agreed authority to ensure the moral grounds of our decisions. Therefore since there are no restrictions and no shared authority; man is naturally un-guarded and prone to conflict and each individual is deemed a potential threat to our resources. From this concept Hobbes deduces that the state of nature is thus primarily a state of war,Read MoreCompare and Contrast Hobbes’s and Locke’s Views of the State of Nature and the Fundamental Purpose of Political Society. Whose View Is the More Plausible? Why?1564 Words   |  7 PagesCompare and contrast Hobbes’s and Locke’s views of the state of nature and the fundamental purpose of political society. Whose view is the more plausible? Why? Introduction Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were both natural law theorists and social contracts theorists. While most natural law theorists have predominantly been of the opinion that humans are social animals by nature, Locke and Hobbes had a different perspective. Their points of view were remarkably different from thoseRead MoreHobbes And Locke s Political Legitimacy1530 Words   |  7 Pagespolitical legitimacy might look quite similar at first glance, because each theorized about the nature of mankind and the right political systems that would meet the needs of individuals. However, in Hobbes’ perspective, political authority does not pre-exist in individual’s state of nature, rather, it is created by the social contract and serves to ensure self-preservation which is threatened in a state of nature. In contrast, Locke thought that the social contract does not create authority, but that politicalRead MoreThomas Hobbes and John Locke on Natural Rights Essay929 Words   |  4 P agesHobbes and Locke on Natural Rights According to the natural right theory, the state of nature is the original condition of human beings in regard to any common authority. In the state of nature, according to Thomas Hobbes, each individual has a right to everything, even the body/life of the other. The state of nature can lead to the state of moral chaos. Moral chaos produces physical chaos or war, thus the state of war, the war of all against all. The reason this is because no one has anyRead MoreThe Social Contract: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau1377 Words   |  6 Pagescontract theory into what it is in this modern day and age. The social contract theory was the creation of Hobbes who created the idea of a social contract theory, which Locke and Rousseau built upon. Their ideas of the social contract were often influenced by the era in which they lived and social issues that were present during their lives. Although all men sit in different positions on the theoretical political spectrum, which is derived from the ir work on the Social Contract Theory, they carryRead MoreThomas Hobbes And John Locke s Political Theories Essay2061 Words   |  9 PagesAnalyzing Thomas Hobbes and John Locke’s Political Theories and Justifying if these Governmental Officials Have Legitimate Reason To Hold Secrets from the Public Systems of government across the globe are utilized to various extents. Similarly to John Locke’s vision of government, the United States stands by a system of representative democracy. This means that our government highly values that the people of a society hold the power of where the direction of their state goes through electing officialsRead MoreNiccolo Machiavellis Change In The Scientific Revolution And Secularism Essay1334 Words   |  6 PagesBentham and Machiavelli had similar ideas on utilitarianism, or doing what is best for the largest group of people. Also occurring throughout the Renaissance and Enlightenment was the Scientific Revolution, which would forever change the way man viewed nature. From 1500 to 1900, the idea of humanism led many to use logic and reason to make new discoveries and inventions. Jacob Bronowski, author of The Western Intellectual Tradition, consistently portrays many of the philosophers he discusses as a scientistsRead MoreRussian Mafia1601 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the most famous types of organized crime in the past and present is the Russian Mafia. This article entails the rational choice theory model with how it justifies being able to join the Russian Mafia and the business that they conduct. A rational theorist would argue that we as people are rational human beings who carefully calculated the consequences of our behaviour. We make choices based on the cost benefit analysis. The concept of the cost benefit analysis is that when we have to makeRead MoreThe Theories Of International Politics Essa y1648 Words   |  7 Pagesnational interest in terms of power. It explains the anarchist nature of the global society without a form of international government possibly existing. If no government is present, then the chaos and disorder is inevitable as every state carries unstoppable search for power at the same time. This explains how states behave and interact with one another. Hobbes defines this incessant search for power as being inherent to our very human nature. The only role of each state is therefore to maximize that

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Secondary Data - 2036 Words

Q) What are Secondary Data? Secondary Data Secondary data is information gathered for purposes other than the completion of a research project. Data previously collected by someone else, possibly for some other purpose that can be used later for making decisions if found suitable for the purpose, other than the original one. Secondary data can be acquired from the internal records of the organization, their departments, subsidiaries or sister organizations and also from external sources, such as chambers of commerce, government, professional and commercial consultants subject to the availability of data . †¢ e.g., data in books, journals, newspapers, magazines, etc. †¢ e.g., data in reports, surveys,†¦show more content†¦Accounting and financial records. These are often an overlooked source of internal secondary information and can be invaluable in the identification, clarification and prediction of certain problems. Accounting records can be used to evaluate the success of various marketing strategies such as revenues from a direct marketing campaign. There are several problems in using accounting and financial data. One is the timeliness factor – it is often several months before accounting statements are available. Another is the structure of the records themselves. Most firms do not adequately setup their accounts to provide the types of answers to research questions that they need. For example, the account systems should capture project/product costs in order to identify the company’s most profitable (and least profitable) activities. Companies should also consider establishing performance indicators based on financial data. These can be industry standards or unique ones designed to measure key performance factors that will enable the firm to monitor its performance over a period of time and compare it to its competitors. Some example may be sales per employee, sales per square foot, expenses per employee (salesperson, etc.). 3. Miscellaneous reports. These can include such things as inventory reports, service calls, number (qualifications and compensation) of staff, production and RD reports. AlsoShow MoreRelatedSecondary Data4906 Words   |  20 PagesCollecting, Reviewing, and Analyzing Secondary Data WHAT IS SECONDARY DATA REVIEW AND ANALYSIS? Secondary data analysis can be literally defined as second-hand analysis. It is the analysis of data or information that was either gathered by someone else (e.g., researchers, institutions, other NGOs, etc.) or for some other purpose than the one currently being considered, or often a combination of the two (Cnossen 1997). If secondary research and data analysis is undertaken with care and diligenceRead MorePrimary and Secondary Data3550 Words   |  15 Pages1. PRIMARY ANDSECONDARY DATA We explore the availability and use of data (primary and secondary) in the field of business research.Specifically, we examine an international sample of doctoral dissertations since 1998, categorizingresearch topics, data collection, and availability of data. Findings suggest that use of only primarydata pervades the discipline, despite strong methodological reasons to augment with secondary data. INTRODUCTION Data can be defined as the quantitative or qualitativeRead MoreIntroduction to Secondary Data1935 Words   |  8 Pagesof the research project specifies both the data that are needed and how they are to be obtained. The first step in the data-collection process is to look for secondary data. These are data that were developed for some purpose other than for helping to solve the problem at hand. The data that are still needed after that search is completed will have to be developed specifically for the research project and are known as primary data. The secondary data that are available are relatively quick andRead MoreDifference Primary and Secondary Data923 Words   |  4 Pages d) Malls e) Saloons Market stategy: f) Target g) Demography h) Packaging i) Labeling j) Pricing Q.7) Market research is generally either primary or secondary. Primary market research is when a company carries out research first hand. Primary market research is more reliable than secondary research because you know that the information you have gathered is accurate, as you have collected it yourself. It is also specific to your type of product/service. On the other handRead MoreSecondary Analysis of Qualitative Data2317 Words   |  10 PagesThis essay aims to examine the practice of secondary analysis on qualitative data in terms of barriers to overcome and advantages of its practice. Over the last decades, archives of qualitative data have become widely accessible to research-es and there has been a smaller revolution in the practice of secondary analysis on such data. (Seale, 2004) There are both practical and methodological ad-vantages for researchers to use data that has been collected by others in order to pursue new research.Read MoreSecondary Data And Sales Potential848 Words   |  4 PagesSecondary Data Sales Potential In order to accurately predict sales potential, the measurement of market size in which the product will be introduced is a vital factor in the initial marketing process. An analysis of the relating demographic factors, market trends, and competitor market share should be executed to achieve this. The following secondary data and market research will allow for one to determine how, when, and to whom the Skarp Razor should be launched into the current Canadian consumerRead MoreMain Advantage Of Secondary Data For My Research969 Words   |  4 PagesSecondary Research Secondary data is data collected from other reliable sources. Common sources of secondary data include census reports, Government records, newspaper articles and many more. Secondary research plays vital role in any kind of research. This is as of now gathered and accessible. Secondary data has the upside of being accessible quickly, is frequently cheap and simple to get yet the weakness is that it may not meet all the needs of research. Advantage The main advantage of secondaryRead MoreThe Origin Of Secondary Data And How The Samples Will Be Selected1944 Words   |  8 Pages 3. Methodology This chapter will present how the author finds answers to our research questions, the author will explain the origin of secondary data and how the samples will be selected. Figure 9 is the schematic presentation of the methodology. Figure 9 Methodology Process (Foster, 1998, p. 81) 3.1 Purpose of the Research In the chapter of Research Purpose and Objectives, the purpose of this research has been briefly explained. Generally, there are three common types of purposes of academicRead MoreUsing Secondary Data Collected From Online Sources Essay1311 Words   |  6 Pages3.0 Methodology The paper uses a comparative case analysis through the use of secondary data collected from online sources. Some of the data include news, books, organisational and football club website. 3.1 Comparative Case Study A comparative case study is an in-depth investigation of a person, group, institution or phenomena through comparison with another . The paper will do a comparative case study of FC Barcelona with the leading clubs in terms of revenue generation, namely Real MadridRead MoreComparing Techniques For Collecting Data On Primary And Secondary Sources2212 Words   |  9 Pages Statistical Inferences Purpose: In this unit we have studied how to: †¢ comparing techniques for collecting data in primary and secondary sources. †¢ Making sense of the position of the mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bimodal displays to describe and interpret data. †¢ Constructing histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots. †¢ Calculate relative frequencies †¢ Investigate data used and its validity Now it is your turn to demonstrate your fluency and understanding of these concepts

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Shark Attacks Free Essays

On 11 July, 1916 Rensselaer Cartan Jr. saw a looming dark figure and noticed a large fin protruding from the water. A shark, the newest fear of many after the several attacks that occurred just days before. We will write a custom essay sample on Shark Attacks or any similar topic only for you Order Now Yet he was 17 miles inland, he knew what he saw and set out to warn the town of the â€Å"sea monster† looming in the creek. â€Å"No way† were the thoughts of many as they heard Caratan Jr. tell his tale, and they continued on with their normal lives, despite his desperate cries of fear and warning. The attacks of Lester Stilwell and Stanley Fisher show that the technology of this era was very un-advanced, this was also the first recorded shark attack in fresh water, and the amount of time it took for a doctor to reach the place of the attack was lengthy and costly. The technology in this era was very weak in comparison to today’s modern medicine and was not efficient in life if death situations. In this time there was no ambulances and the way to be rushed to the hospital was by train and by automobile. If theses attacks had occurred in modern times, the death of Fisher may have been stopped. The death of Stilwell was definite, due to the fact that the shark mangled Stilwell’s body beneath the water, where he drowned. He also would have died from sheer amounts of blood loss and the fact that no one would have reached the eleven year old boy on time. Though modern technology has changed the amount of help that doctors can provide patients the patient, must be first saved from the cause of death. In this case the shark did not let young Stilwell have the opportunity of medical treatment that he so desperately needed. These attacks were a shock to the world because they occurred in a creek seventeen miles inland. Bull sharks have been found in various fresh water sources, sometimes far upriver or upstream in some cases, their high tolerance for fresh water nearly unique among shark species. (Davidson) The bull shark is a shark that is known to be found in modern times to swim into the mouths of rivers to find better prey. This was unknown to the people of 1916 as was many facts of the entire species of sharks. Nobody thought a shark would travel so far inland and in a creek no larger than 45 feet across. (capuzzo 89) The shark had been allowed to travel so far up due to the fact the the tide was at its highest point due to the lunar cycle. (capuzzo 91) The shark was easily able to maneuver and find its prey in the murky water. The amount of time that it took for a doctor to reach the scene, where Stilwell and Fisher were attacked was far too long. According to Julius Kish, no doctor lived or worked in the town of Matawan in 1916. This may have contributed to the fact that Fisher died and did not receive medical attention right away as was needed. The only immediate he received was that of his friends, who were in shock. His friends made a makeshift tourniquet using rope to stop the excessive blood flow. (Capuzzo 101) This was not enough to save the mans life, he needed immediate medical attention. Stanley fisher slowly began to die as he waited for the doctors to arrive to treat his wound, a large chunk of flesh missing from his pelvis. Fisher’s wounds were dire, yet he willed to live. â€Å"That afternoon in 1916, however, the treatment Stanley Fisher required was two hours and thirty-nine minutes away. † (Capuzzo 101) At this time hospitals lay far apart and the travel to a hospital may be too far and by the time patients reach the hospital, death has already set in. When Fisher pulled his body out of the water he lied there in a pool of his own blood. (capuzzo 100) As the blood would continue to flow he was at risk for blood loss and also diseases of having an uncared for open gash. With such a limited supply of medical attention in this era caused casualties that would be routine in todays modern age. The attacks of 1916 started an epidemic of natural fear against man eating sharks. Lester Stilwell’s body took two days to resurface. In those two days rumors flowed through America on what had happened to the boy. The curiosity on what caused this â€Å"rouge† shark to go on such vicious attacks initiated people to begin researching these mysterious predators. presently we now no much more about sharks and continue to research to better understand how these suspicious animals tick. How to cite Shark Attacks, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Living Lyrics free essay sample

I had to hustle/ My back to the wall, Ashy knuckles/, Pockets filled with a lot of lent/ Not a cent / gotta vent. These were the lyrics of my life at this particular point in time. It was the middle of my eighth grade year. I was the new guy at Texas Middle School. I had just moved from Houston to Texarkana, Texas. My mom and I were constantly relocating. She had a repetitive nature for abusive relationships. Some were emotional, but most were physical. Although I never let them get too physical. She promised me she would try the single life for a couple months and see how things worked out. Granted, she makes several false promises; I was willing to believe her this one time. I had managed to make the school basketball team. I never got any playing time. During the first three quarters, the bench and I would converse. We will write a custom essay sample on Living Lyrics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Then fourth quarter took a liking to me; we got acquainted more than just a few times. I have always been smaller than others my age so just the thought of myself playing high school football made me cringe He just sits/ and watches the people in the boxes/ Everything he see’s he absorbs and adopts it/ He mimics and he mocks it/ Really hates the box but he can’t remember how to stop it/ I am not sure what it is about me but I always look at the negative side of things. One might say I see the glass half empty. It was pretty easy to meet new people who say â€Å"hi† and â€Å"bye† to me from time to time, but with my being the new guy and being shy at the same time, it would be a while before I acquired any real friends. So as one would expect I got pretty lonely. Then again, I would never be too solitary. No matter where I went my good friend poverty would trail not too far behind. Even with all this going on, I was trying my best to fit in. I was slowly being sculpted by conformity and peer pressure. A good percentage of the student body with whom I was familiar were either into drug usage, or they were sexually active. I was too much of a coward engaged in either. Despite all my fear, all of my lonesomeness, all of my adversities, there was always one thing that was constant. There was always that one thing that kept me sane: poetry. No matter what mood I was in, although it was usually a pessimistic one, I would be able to translate my emotions to paper with no problem. The hard part was making them rhyme. Slowly but surely creatively expressing my thoughts started to get easier day by day. One day I would be writing about how much I dislike my English teacher, Ms. Harnes, and the next I would be jotting down little nonsense rhymes because they were amusing. It was not until this point that I had realized that I did not have so much of a negative attitude any more. The school days seemed to soar by like a Lear jet in the pale bl ue sky. All of a sudden I started seeing things in a different light. Even though nothing had changed my state of mind had. B team was not so bad. At least I made it. I mustered up the courage to try out for the football my freshman year of high school and I was not too bad. I gained a friend here and there and even started associating with him outside of school. Poverty still lagged behind me, but I tried not to focus on it so much. Besides, free lunch is not that bad. I was a better me, and all because I found a way to express my emotions through writing. Now these are the lyrics to my life: Finally I can say, Everything today has gone my way It’s a Lovely Just go paid Stack it up, be on my way It’s a lovely day, Lovely day A Lovely day

Friday, March 20, 2020

L’oreal’s Way to Success in the European Haircare Products Industry Essays

L’oreal’s Way to Success in the European Haircare Products Industry Essays L’oreal’s Way to Success in the European Haircare Products Industry Essay L’oreal’s Way to Success in the European Haircare Products Industry Essay L’oreal’s Way to Success in the European Haircare Products Industry Introduction: L’oreal, the name of the cosmetics giant, appears with high frequency in nearly all world-class newspapers and magazines in recent times. There is a striking headline in the Independent (London, England) on Feb 21, 2004 p54, â€Å"LOreal builds on two decades of growth as profits soar. † The news is â€Å"Loreal has set its sights on notching up two decades of consecutive annual double-digit growth after reporting a 13. 5 per cent rise in profit last year. † Lindsay Owen-Jones, chairman, showed his confidence for the rate of internal sales growth next year. Maybe it is not too difficult for a company to rank first of its annual sales growth. But it seems a mystery for a company to keep its position of market-leader in the world with annual double-digit growth for 19 years and even more enigmatical for a company in the cosmetics industry. How can L’oreal compete against its rivals and gain today’s success? Let’s go back to 1997. At that time, L’oreal was the market leader in France and at the end of June, after considerable coordination between company headquarters and subsidiaries, Lindsay, stated the company’s new mission : Make L’oreal Elseve a leader throughout Europe. Though shampoo was used by 83. 5% of the population, there was little brand loyalty and it was extremely difficult to create any. A widespread belief in Europe is that changing shampoos frequently was good for the hair because otherwise it would get used to a particular shampoo and the result would not be so satisfactory. The important reason is that shampoo is a product which can help L’oreal penetrate into all households by all kinds of people. Leadership in the shampoo could give L’oreal a considerable boost in its brand recognition and make it accessible to the young customers and males. The ardousness ahead of L’oreal was obvious. This article will base on L’oreal, the pilgrim’s progress, to analyze what critical success factors of L’oreal are to create its competitive advantage and how L’oreal has successfully sustained its advantage with the marketing strategy to underpin its position step by step in the European haircare market. Critical Success Factors of an Organization Critical Success Factors in General Johnson Scholes states (p. 151) that critical success factors (CSFs) are those product features that are particularly valued by a group of customers and, therefore, where the organization must excel outperform competition. † Hooley et al (1998, p. 45) thought that â€Å" The essential factors in choosing how to create the competitive advantage are that it must be on a basis of value to the customer (lower prices, superior quality, better service). ?Core Competences: Hamel and Prahalad (cited Lynch 2003, p. 235) said t hat â€Å"Core competence are a group of production skills and technologies that enable an organization to provide a particular benefit to consumers †¦. hey act as a fundamental resource of the organization. † Johnson Scholes (2002, p. 156) thought that the most important feature of core competence is robust, i. e. being difficult to imitate. The aim can only be obtained through the constant innovation. The following is the analysis of L’oreal’s critical successful factors. ?Resources Creating Competitive Advantage 1. Processes, Products, Services 2. Human Resources 3. Information 4. Financial Resources Porter (1985) suggests that the above four kinds of resources can create a competitive advantage and that cost leadership and differentiation strategies could be adopted. The analysis of L’oreal’s success will be illustrated as follows. L’oreal’s critical successful Factors ?Core competences: Constant research and innovation- the determinant of L’oreal’s competitive position 1. Historical analysis: L’oreal was founded in 1907 by the chemist Eugene Schuller, since then the Group carried on the tradition that put research at the centre of his development strategy. From the review of L’oreal’s history, it is obvious that result of research and innovation is the determinant of its competitive position. . 978: Elseve had a positioning as a shampoo for damaged hair and was seen as too rich, too nourish and too heavy to be used on a daily basis. But at this time, the frequency in the use of shampoos increased dramatically and shampoos which has the hasteristic of being gentle and mild enough to be used every day became more appealing to consumers. Timotei, Ultra Doux and MIxa baby a baby shampoo became the market leader because it was as so mild that it can be used every day. When planning Elseve’s brand extension, L’oreal decided to offer separate products for frequent and less- frequent shampooing. This gave rise to products such as Elseve Baslsam, Elseve Frewuence, Elseve Volume Nd Elseve for oily hair. But the positioning has not made much improvement. 1987: Following a new product launched by Timoei, the market had its new trend: active ingredients were in fashion and products started to introduce natural ingredients. The Elseve products were renewed and L’oreal decided to target new market segments. The idea was to offer products for all types of hair, enriching the formula with a different active ingredient for each type of hair. 994: L’oreal developed a silicone-based formula which treated each stand of hair individually, leaving it very soft and easy to comb as it was thoroughly detangled. Consumers noticed this immediately and Elseve successfully enter the normal hair segment of the market. Thereafter, L’oreal profited from the advantage of polyesters and silicone. The successful combination of the two ingredients in the shampoo formula gave Lâ€⠄¢oreal a major advantage over its competitors and escalated its competitive position. 1995: The company launched Elseve Multicitamines and added the Technicare line to the Elseve product range. Elseve Multivitamines used a silicone-based formula that tested better than the composition of Procter Gamble’s silicone-based Pantene which at the time was the European market leader. Launching Elseve Multivitamines enabled Elseve to increase its target segments, addressing not only consumers with damaged hair or other hair care problems bur also people with normal hair. The new formula was the milestone of L’oreal’s shampoo battle. The innovation of research brought a series of good results: increase of sales and so did prices. The high revenue made it possible to increase the advertising budget, further increased its market share. Since then, with the leading position of the new skills and constant development as well as successful implementation of marketing strategy, L’oreal went steadily towards its No 1 position. 2. Panorama of Research Development in today’s L’oreal: The continuous innovation has helped L’oreal gain its competitive advantage and kept on escalation of its competitive position, from a French leader to be a European Leader and now the world leader. L’oreal regards research as the heart of the business. The investment in research is much higher than that of its rivals. 1)Delicate combination of Research and Marketing: a)A balance between the creative RD and marketing-led RD has kept L’oreal launching new viable products continuously. i. Advanced research: this is a long-term research with the aim of developing new ingredients, better understanding and improving the effectiveness of new ingredients and products as well as better understanding its toxicological effects. For example, marketers wanted a natural fruit-based shampoo range for the European market. It took 10 years of hard RD to develop the formulae for the Fructis range. L’oreal is reasonable to give scientist freedom to work on their long-term ideas. Ultimately, in July 1996 in France tests showed spectacular results of the Fructis range on the quality of hair. Within the first six months alone, it had sold nearly 5 million units and since then it has helped L’oreal capture 28 percent of the European shampoo market by being rolled out into not only European market but also in Scandinavia, Russia and Chile. On the health front, an International Safety Assessment Department of L’oreal looks in-depth at the toxicological profile of all the ingredients used and assesses the safety and tolerance of all formulations before they are used and put on the market. ii. Applied research: this level takes over ideas from both L’oreal’s own advanced research and from what has been done outside the company to refine new materials and put them into practice. It will take a long time to evaluate its effectiveness, its acceptance in use. For example, Research Institute in Chicago is dedicated to advanced research to improve understanding of the properties and specific requirements of the skin and hair of people of African descent.. 2)During the development work of new product, it is quite important of the researchers not lose sight of industrial reality. There more formal contacts between scientists and marketers which is unusual in other companies. Some formal meeting held usually including the contents such as: one day per month to discuss the progress of current projects; two or three meetings per year for the scientists to reveal their goodies to the marketers. )Renovating faster than competitors: In the hypercompetitive market conditions, it is no longer enough to plan for sustainable positions. In order to gain advantages, firms must be prepared to pre-empt imitation by others. With continuous launch of new products and brands, L’oreal hopes to make a strong and immediate impact on the market. ?Resources Creating Competitive advantages: Companies can add value by creating competitive advantage through the incremental management of the following resources. 1. Processes, Products , Services: )Selecting Raw materials and close relationship with suppliers: L’oreal pay much attention on the selection of the raw materials. With the aim of product safety and effectiveness, all the 2,800 raw materials used are continuously being renewed at a rate of 150 a year. The suppliers all over the world manage L’oreal to obtain the highest natural ingredients. L’oreal set out to promote and develop the use of raw materials from natural, renewable sources. In 2002, 39. 7% of their raw materials in volume terms came from plants. These new raw materials are the product either of LOreal Research or of research carried out by suppliers. A constructive ongoing dialogue with its suppliers plays an important role during the process. Using this diversified approach, progress has already been made in raw material selection. Partnerships allow them to establish a close, long-term relationship with suppliers based on innovation, safety and quality. 2)Reducing operating cost of products: It streamlines packaging, gains economies of scale in the aggressive management of the top performing brands. Elseve (Elvive, ElVital) shampoo bottles have been improved and now require almost 25% less material, which equates to almost 450 tons of polyethylene a year saved. In addition to this reduction, the indirect effects on transport and recycling are also minimized. 3)Address possible segments: L’oreal has made an elaborate and deep study so as to address possible market segments. It has divided up the total European market according to the geographic segmentation, age, gender, typology, nature of hair, washing frequency, and amount used (See Appendices 1 to 4). The aim of L’oreal is to â€Å"seeks to make accessible to women and men all over the world†. L’oreal launched the brand L’oreal’s Studio Line for men and P’tit Dop for children. 4) Market Targeting: L’oreal makes deep and thorough survey about the people’s attractiveness of different European countries. For example, Germany was more price-oriented than other countries, so using the strategy of price reduction can increase Elvital’s market share increased significantly. Another example is that Spain was the European country with the most greasy and least straight hair. The market accepted the introduction of new products that contained technological innovations. Natural ingredients were very well accepted. 5)Umbrella brand strategy: Competing with a number of different L’oreal brands enabled the company to position its products in more market segments and compete for market leadership by adding all together sales for its different brands. At the same time, product cannibalism was avoided by designing different positioning strategies: every single product invested in creating its own personality. )Broadest Distribution channels: L’oreal is able to make its most advanced technologies available to a large number of people. All the Group’s brands, particularly those whose purpose is to provide a wide group of people with the most innovative products at affordable prices, make the latest discoveries more accessible. 7)Communications Srategy: L’oreal’s communications strategy involves signing contracts with major intern ational stars from the world of show business and fashion to make them the spokespersons for specific items. In the UK, Jennifer Anniston, an actress on the leading TV sitcom â€Å"Friends† was chosen as the brand spokeswoman. Jennifer Anniston transmitted a modern, powerful image because she was a famous actress and very popular among generations aged 15 to 35. She was also very admired for her beautiful, stylish hair. The Ceramide R molecule , which was able to â€Å"Wash the strength back into your hair. † , was claimed by its advertising for the entire range in the UK. Delicate design of the advertising helped Elvive capture more than a 6% market share in 1997, and rose to 8% in the following year, making it the second –ranked brand on the market. Another example is about the leading brand Elvive. Elvive tries to capture the essence of pleasure using advertisements that sound tempting: â€Å"Because I’m worth it. †, says L’oreal. (Principle, Kotler, p. 459) 2. Human Resources: 1)Implement the best possible working conditions and try to make employee relations as personal as possible. 2)Recruit talented people from multicultural backgrounds and develop diversity. 3)Offer Sharing achievements: In 2003, LOreal paid a total of â‚ ¬43 million in bonuses under the WPS scheme for the 2002 financial year, equivalent to an average of two weeks salaray. 4)Motivate people, particularly through a highly dynamic approach to remuneration and mobility. )Promote personal and professional development through the training programs offered by the Continuing Education and by comparing experiences. 6)Developing partnerships with Universities: The Groups involvement with universities has been stepped up and it now maintains 120 close partnerships all over the world. These ta ke different forms, including: financial backing for chairs, such as those at Oxford (Business School) 3. Information Resources: Information is one of the most basic ingredients of a successful marketing strategy. (Keegan, p. 189) Another job for applied research mentioned above in L’oreal is to watch the competition. About 20 people in L’oreal do nothing else but surfing the web and getting hold of 1,000 new products of other companies. Between 700 and 800 of them are examined in minute detail. 4. Financial Resources: Strategy is influenced and constrained by the financial resources of a company. John Scholes said (p. 348), â€Å"The advantage of ‘deep pockets’ is that a competitor can withstand an intensive competitive war. The organizer can gain competitive knowledge worldwide and also move resources wherever they are necessary either to preserve their own interests or to tackle competition. L’oreal’s success in the European started after it created its competitive advantage in its financial resource. In 1995, the success of new formula allowed L’oreal to increase the price of Elseve products by 20%. Increased revenue meant that Elseve could spent more on advertising. This enabled Elseve to address more segments with differentiated messages, thereby further increasing its market share. The Marketing Environment Kotler et al (1997, p. 64) stated that â€Å"Managing the marketing functions would be hard enough if the marketer had to deal only with the controllable marketing-mix variables. The company operates in a complex environment (macro- and micro- )which consists of uncontrollable forces and actors which affect the company’s ability to perform well. Successful company is able to analyze its environment and so that it can avoid the threats and take advantage of the opportunities. ?The Macro-Environment This consists of a number of broader f orces that affect the company, which are largely uncontrollable, a new product or marketing program is likely to be more successful if it is in-line with strong macro environmental trends rather than opposing them. 1. Political: Political changes in the 1990s meant that almost all trading nations function with market –based economies and their trade policies have tended to encourage free markets between nations. (Johnson , p. 105) Governments are breaking up monopolies and introducing more pro-consumer legislation concerned with making the customer the ultimate decider on what will and will not to be produced. (Wright, p. 5) 2. Economical: With the adoption of the euro as a standard currency, many political boundaries will fall. By removing currency conversion hurdles, the switch will likely increase cross-border trade. (Kotler, et al , p. 59) 3. Social cultural/Natural: There is an increasing convergence of markets world. In some markets, customer needs and preferences are becoming similar 4. Technological: The fast development of technology is the key characteristic of environmental turbulence. It brings the high innovation turbulence. New technology creates new markets and opportunities and also ma kes markets and companies obsolete. ?The Micro-Environment: It includes the company itself, suppliers, customers, and competitors as well as public. The above analysis of L’oreal’s critical successful sectors has made relevant detailed statement. SWOT Analysis: Understanding the environment, taking good advantage of the opportunities and avoiding the threats are important elements of L’oreal’s success. SWOT analysis is useful for a good understand of L’oreal. Strength: L’oreal’s high speed of renovation (over 3,000 new formulas) and the absolute competitive advantage of technology provide solid barriers for the potential entrants to entry. Its products cover all possible segments. The aim of L’oreal is to â€Å"seeks to make accessible to women and men all over the world†. L’oreal is able to make its most advanced technologies available to a large number of people in all areas of products. All the Group’s brands , particularly those whose purpose is to provide a wider group of people with the most innovative products at affordable prices, make the latest discoveries more accessible. It can be said that L’oreal has managed to satisfy the desire of different segments of buyers. All these strength made it quite difficult to be substituted, at least provide the delay of being substituted. L’oreal is adept at continuously bringing innovation to the marketplace and maximizing the use of established brand names with new products targetd at these subsegments and niches. The advanced research result make many promising question marks become stars. Based on the solid financial resources, the stars will become cash cows as their markers mature. So many stars and cash cows of L’oreal shine actively in the world. Every product’s advantage is temporary, and will be eroded. However, long-term advantage of L’oreal maybe sustained through a series of temporary advantages. Weakness: L’oreal is present in 130 countries, has 290 subsidiaries. Because of social and cultural difference, it is not easy to make the management is efficient in each subsidiary. The large distribution may meet unexpected trade trouble because of political risks, such as loosing all control, ownership of assets and market access. (Bradley, p. 133) Opportunities: In 1995, the French haircare products market was saturated at that time. The success of the new fomula made L’oreal occupy the capability to enter the European market. The opportunities to enter the European market gave L’oreal a shot in the arm. Globalization and deregulation as well as the emerging of European Union speeded up the entry. In haircare industry product, customers’ needs and preferences of different countries are becoming more similar. The trend of healthy and shiny hair has gained popularity. All these opportunities offered L’oreal more space to develop. Threats: Facing powerful threat from world famous brands of Procter Gamble, Unilever etc, L’oreal has had to invest heavily in innovation. The Group has 3 percent of consolidated sales devoted to research, 2823 people engaged in cosmetics and dermatological research, 501 patents registered in 2002. By comparison, Procter Gamble, Unilever, spend only 1. 7 percent and 1. 5 percent respectively of their cosmetics turnover (which is 20 percent lower than that of L’oreal in any case. The threat can be low if L’oreal can keep on developing patents and launching new formulas faster than other Group. (Brassington Pettitt, p. 385) Conclusion: L’oreal’s opportunities outperformed the rivals’ threats and its weakness seemed much less important than its strength. The whole trend of environment is in favor of L’orealâ €™s progress. It can be convincible that L’oreal’s powerful core competence of constant innovation and flexible, efficient marketing strategy has forged and sustained L’oreal’s success and bring it a bright future. References: . Kotler, P. , and Armstrong, G. , 1997. Marketing: an Introduction. 4th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall. 2. Wright, R. , 1999. Marketing: Origins, concepts, Rnvironment. 1st ed. London: Thomson Learning. 3. Doyle, P. , 2000. Value-based Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Corporate Growth and Shareholder Value. 1st ed. Chichester: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. 4. Keegan, W, J. , 2002. Global Marketing Management. 7th ed. Person Education, Inc. 5. Bradley, F. , 2002. International Marketing Strategy. 4th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall. 6. Brassington,F. , and Pettitt, S. 2003. Principles of Marketing. 3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson education limited. . 7. Kotler, P. et al . 2001. Principles of Marketing. 3rd European ed. Harlow: Pearson education limite d. . 8. Johnson, G. , and Scholes, k. , 2002. Exploring Corporate Strategy. 6th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall. 9. Hooley, G. J. , et al. 1998. Marketing Strategy Competitive Positioning. 10. Porter, M. E. , 1985. Competitive Advantage. Free Press. 11. Prahalad, C. K. , and Hamel, G. , The core Competence of the Corporation. Harvard Business Review (May/June 1990), p. 79-91.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Freelance Editors for Indie Authors

Freelance Editors for Indie Authors Do you want to make your book the best it can be? Of course you do. But how do you do that? If you are an indie author, as so many of us are these days, it is essential that you work with both a professional editor and an experienced cover designer. The process for finding these pros is pretty similar but today we are going to take a look at how to find the perfect-fit editor for you and your book. Editors come in two general categories: a.) developmental editors who work with you right out of the gate to help you understand your market, conceptualize your book, organize the material, avoid repetition, keep it moving, engaging, fresh and original, and b.) copyeditors and proofreaders who make sure your completed manuscript is error-free and professionally designed. How Do You Find A Good Developmental Editor? Good is the key word here. A good editor is likely to be a professional editor who has had lots of experience in the traditional book publishing world. Once you have located an editor you feel may be right for your book, find out where she has worked and what published books she has worked on. Make sure she has had experience editing the kind of book you are writing. This is very important. And where do you find this person? = Get a referral. Check around, ask other writers, your friends, agents at writers conferences. = Look online. Go to Google and type in Freelance Editors.   Of course, you can type in Freelance Copyeditors and Proofreaders or Freelance Book Designers, too, if thats what you happen to be looking for. Also, you can check out our recently published guide The Self-Publishers Ultimate Resource Guide www.bookdocs.com The Independent Editors Group (full disclosure, Im a member of this group. www.bookworks.com The Self-Publishers Association www.bibliocrunch.com Bibliocrunch www.consulting-editors.com Consulting Editors Alliance www.digitalbookworld.com Digital Book World www.elance.com Elance www.the-efa.org Editorial Freelancers Association www.mediabistro.com Media Bistro www.publishersmarketplace.com Publishers Market Place = Chat with the editor. Define your goals. Feel free to ask him for his credentials and for the titles of a few of the published books he has worked on. If he has not worked on any books that have been published = Be clear about the fee structure. Does she charge = Ask about the time line. How long does she expect the editing process to take? This depends on how quickly you get the revisions back to her, but make sure you both agree on what is a reasonable amount of time for this project to take. = Ask if he has had experience with self-publishing. This is not essential, but sometimes an editor who knows his way around self-publishing, or who can at least refer you to others who do, can be a big help for first time indie authors. Always remember, this is your book. You are the creator, the artist, and your name is on the cover. When you disagree with your editors suggestions, trust your instincts and go with what you feel is right. You are the boss and thats as it should be.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Relationship between minimalism and Pop Art Essay

Relationship between minimalism and Pop Art - Essay Example Originated in Britain during the late 1950s up to 1960s, the pop art movement was formed to go against the concept of both abstract expressionism and minimalism . As such, the pop art movement challenges that way traditional fine arts were created. Likewise, the development of pop art movement also tried to put a distinction between the creation of â€Å"high art and low popular culture†. Based on aesthetical issues, the history of art movement, and social responses, this essay will purposely discuss the main relationship between minimalism and pop art. As part of the main discussion, similarities and differences between minimalism and pop art will be identified followed by determining the link that creates connection between these two types of art movements. In relation to American art and culture as well as the whole â€Å"anti-abstract expressionism†, the works of pop artists such as Andy Warhol and Robert Rauschenberg and minimalism artists such as Frank Stella and Donald Judd will be considered in this study. Depending on iconography, colours, forms, lines, shape, texture and other similar factors, at least one (1) work example coming from each of these four artists will be compared and contrast to show antithetical connections, similarities, and differences between minimalism and pop art. Both the minimalism and pop art movement was at its peak sometime in 1960s , . In line with this, one of the most obvious similarities between the minimalism and pop art group of artists is that both movements.